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The environment is the complex set of physical, geographic, biological, social, cultural and political conditions that surround an individual or organism and that determine its form and the nature of its survival. The environment influences how people live and how societies. For that reason, people, progress, economic development and environment are closely linked. More Info: http://crowncapitaleco.tumblr.com/ Environmental economics is a sub-field of economics concerned with environmental issues. Environmental economics undertakes theoretical studies of the economics effects on natural or local environmental policies around the world, particular issues include the costs and benefits of alternative environmental policies to deal with air pollution, water quality, toxic substance, solid waste, and global warming (National Bureau of Economic Research). Environmental issues in Pakistan threaten the population’s health and have been disturbing the balance between economic development and environmental protection. The environmental conditions in Pakistan are a matter of great concern. A number of serious environmental problems present in our country, which are of great ecological concern in terms of sustainable economic future. These are water pollution from raw sewage, industrial, limited natural fresh water resources, solid erosion, pesticide misuse, deforestation, desertification and urban pollution. Environment has never been matter of concern for Pakistan and the tendency goes further chronic as all mainstream political parties, bracing for participation in the forthcoming polls, have placed environment issues at the bottom of their draft manifestos. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), adopted in 1992 and entered into force in 1994 and as a result the adoption of Kyoto Protocol initially in 1997 (which later entered into force on February 16, 2005) has dubbed it necessary for all to have more vibrant climate change policies at political and national level across the world. However in Pakistan, politics has all glamour but blind to environment issues. Indifference on the subject gets more appalling because common people especially civil society have not bothered to bash political leadership for downplaying environment matters in their manifestos. Adding insult to injury, various NGOs engaged in revamping environmental degradation, government departments and independent associations, national and international have also opted out to remain silent over the situation. In terms of words, Pakistan claims to be part of global world but at the time of action, it lacks interest to follow environment protocol, which are accepted and practiced on international front. Even neighbouring country India has better awakening for environmental problems and its political parties are so sensitive on the issue that they have placed climate matters on the top of their manifestos. The Pakistan People’s Party (PPP) was founded in 1967 by late Zulfikar Ali Bhutto but PPP spotted environmental problems during 2002 general elections when late Benazir Bhutto positioned them in party manifesto. The same manifesto was incorporated in 2008 general elections. The manifesto just mentioned them instead putting greater emphasis on environment to ensure water security, green energy, environment-friendly policies and environment curriculum in educational institutions. With similar fashion and mind, PPP’s 13-member manifesto committee is again on the roll to fine tune its 2013 election manifesto highlighting five Es: ‘Employment, education, energy, equality, environment. The Pakistan Muslim League-N headed by two-time Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif has even given a cold shoulder to environment issues in all manifestos. It is not surprising the manifesto does not cater to environment issue specially climate change, pollution of air and marine habitat, water quality, biodiversity, invasive plants and animals, eco-system, unsustainable agriculture, overpopulation and so on and so forth. Pakistan Environment Lawyers’ Association (PELA) President Rafy Aalam criticised political parties for belittling environment issues in their manifestos but courageously confessed “Our like environment associations and NGOs also under-performed as if political parties did nothing and we also stayed out of the focus.” He said, “Had we been in touch with political leadership in making of manifestos giving feedback on environment issues, they might have enlisted environment problems in true letter and spirit and this would have turned as tipping point but we remained dormant.”
For a country blessed with bountiful oil supplies, it may appear incongruous. But Norway is importing as much rubbish as it can get its hands on, in an effort to generate more energy by burning waste in vast incinerators. The Eurotrash business may sound like an unpromising enterprise, but it's one that is increasingly profitable. The UK paid to send 45,000 tonnes of household waste from Bristol and Leeds to Norway between October 2012 and April this year. "Waste has become a commodity," says Pål Spillum, head of waste recovery at the Climate and Pollution Agency in Norway. "There is a big European market for this, so much so that the Norwegians are accepting rubbish from other countries to feed the incinerator." He refuses to divulge the sums involved, saying only that the market is growing. Spillum is "considering requests" to burn waste from other UK towns. "As a rule we generate about 50% of our income from the fee we receive to take the waste and about 50% from the sale of the energy we create," he says. Norway is not alone. Waste to energy has become a preferred method of rubbish disposal in the EU, and there are now 420 plants in Europe equipped to provide heat and electricity to more than 20 million people. Germany ranks top in terms of importing rubbish, ahead of Sweden, Belgium and the Netherlands. But it's Norway that boasts the largest share of waste to energy in district heat production, according to Danish government-funded State of Green. Oslo's waste incinerator was built with extra capacity to cater for future growth. "With more and more countries in Europe moving away from using landfill, we assume that there will be growth in waste to energy," says Christoffer Back Vestli, communications adviser for the Oslo municipality. "At the moment, the city of Oslo can take 410,000 tonnes of waste a year and we import 45,000 tonnes from the UK. Europe as a whole currently dumps 150m tonnes of waste in landfills every year, so there is clearly great potential in using waste for energy." Spillum adds: "It is cheaper [for some UK towns] to pay for us to take their waste than to pay landfill fees." The incinerator only takes "clean trash" and the municipality is careful to filter out anything that could be hazardous. Norwegians are meticulous about their waste and divide household rubbish into three bags – blue for plastic to be recycled, green for food waste to make biogas and white for everything else that goes to the waste plant. But many are concerned that the rubbish being imported from the UK and Ireland may not be so carefully sorted. "We have no way of knowing whether the rubbish coming in from Bristol or Leeds or Ireland has been properly sorted or is 'clean'," says Henning Reinton, head of Greenpeace in Norway. There are worries that burning rubbish may discourage recycling. Julian Kirby, of Friends of the Earth, says: "Waste for energy isn't as green as it's made out to be. We estimate that 80% of what's in the average waste stream is easily recyclable." Kirby argues that the incineration system creates confusion: "If you think your waste being burned is a good thing then you are more inclined to just chuck things away rather than recycling them." Some Norwegians also view the waste-to-energy plant as a blot on the landscape. "People in the city find it quite ugly," says Reinton, who is campaigning against the use of incinerators to generate energy from waste. "The modern facilities are far less polluting and damaging to the environment than the older incinerators, but burning waste is just a shortcut. We need to think about longer-term strategies for minimising it." But most residents seem comfortable with the idea of burning waste to create fuel, with 71% of the population supporting the renewable energy source. Ove Merg, an electrical engineer in Oslo, says: "We certainly think it's positive that we use an environmentally friendly energy source. It's great that waste can be useful, and that it actually heats our house." Øistein Thomassen, a photographer from the city, adds: "We produce insane amounts of waste every day, so why not use waste as fuel for heat? As long as the benefits outweigh the risks, I think that using waste as an energy source is brilliant." Related News: http://www.etsy.com/teams/14598/asia-global-energy-ltd http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0drCNOZPHcI
Asia Global Energy Solutions: Research and Markets: Global Waste to Energy Technologies Market 2012-2016
According to the report, the increasing demand for energy is one of the major drivers in the Global Waste to Energy Technologies market. Since traditional power generation techniques lead to increased carbon emissions, various governments across the globe are shifting their focus to recycled energy generation methods such as waste to energy technologies. This is in turn increasing demand for WTE technologies because they emit less harmful gases when compared to fossil fuel-based power generation plants.